Technical Information

Operating Systems

Operating Systems
Today’s modern operating systems do an amazing variety of functions right out of the box. Aside from controlling the most rudimentary computer functions like disk input/output, memory management, and networking, an OS also allows the user to run a variety of programs or applications which can, among other things, display video and play music, create and print complex documents, and of course, access and surf the internet. Indeed, the OS and its associated GUI have made home-based personal computers nearly as ubiquitous as televisions and microwave ovens.
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An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers, manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software. Operating system is the most important type of system software in a computer system. Without an operating system, a user cannot run an application program on their computer, unless the application program is self booting.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. – Wikipedia

Operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap.

List of operating systems
Operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap.

Comparison of operating systems
These tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. Because of the large number and variety of available Linux distributions, they are all grouped under a single entry; see comparison of Linux distributions for a detailed comparison. There are also a variety of BSD operating systems, covered in comparison of BSD operating systems. For information on views of each operating system, see operating system advocacy.

Operating systems
Operating System ABCs
Operating System types
Operating System overviews
Operating System Q&A
Operating System definitions
Apple news
Linux / Unix news
Microsoft news

What is operating system?
The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.

How Operating Systems Work
The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the device it lives in behaves in a flexible but predictable way. In this article, we’ll tell you what a piece of software must do to be called an operating system, show you how the operating system in your desktop computer works and give you some examples of how to take control of the other operating systems around you.

Operating Systems Lecture Notes
The 1960’s definition of an operating system is “the software that controls the hardware”. However, today, due to microcode we need a better definition. We see an operating system as the programs that make the hardware useable. In brief, an operating system is the set of programs that controls a computer. Some examples of operating systems are UNIX, Mach, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Windows/NT, Chicago, OS/2, MacOS, VMS, MVS, and VM.

Free and non-free Operating Systems
This page contains alternatives to Windows, free operating systems, interesting initiatives for new Operating Systems, commercial Operating Systems, Operating Systems-related sites, Virtual Machines (emulators) which can be used to run Operating Systems inside other Operating Systems and more.

Operating System Technical Comparison
This web site compares and contrasts operating systems. It originally started out on a small server in the engineering department of Ohio State University to answer a single question: “On technical considerations only, how does  Rhapsody (also known as  Mac OS X Server) stack up as a server operating system (especially in comparison to  Windows NT)?” The web site now compares and contrasts server operating systems and will in the near future expand to compare other kinds of operating systems.

Operating Systems-on-line
The following lessons introduce the topic of operating systems in computers by discussing the main function of operating systems and investigating several key parts of operating systems such as memory and file managers. Each lesson includes a set of review questions which test the important concepts from the lesson and provide practice problems. After reading each lesson, you should work the review questions before proceeding to the next lesson. Use the navigation bar at the top of this page to view the lessons and access the review questions. Each lesson page has a link on the navigation bar which will take you to the review questions for that lesson.


Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a conceptual entity which is a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it “cannot be touched”. Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. – Wikipedia

Free software downloads –
Long before the iTunes Store was a glimmer in Steve Jobs’ eye, launched in 1996 as the most comprehensive, safest place to get all your software, from the latest drivers and codecs to professional-grade programs. It was, and still is, notable for scanning and testing its software catalog to ensure that none would infect your computer. We take a look at the history of the software world before, the rise of modern software, and where software stands now.

Over 200,000 Software Free Downloads
BrotherSoft served the customers as one of the leading software download website worldwide since July 2002. Over 250,000 freeware and shareware are for free download which covers 7 channels including Windows, Mac, Mobile, etc. There are more than 10,00,000 downloads every day on our site.
Multi-language portals including Japanese, German, Russian, French, Spanish to meet the software need of Non-English speaking country customers.
Since 2008, we implemented Akamai’s Electronic Software Delivery and Dynamic Site Accelerator solution with globe servers in more than 60 countries worldwide to keep high-speed download.
Softpedia - the encyclopedia of free software downloads!

Free Mobile Software
mobile9 is an app store and more. Truly open, truly social. Millions of members are sharing the fun and billions of free downloads served. is a leading online portal for software products, with free downloads and expert software reviews to help you make an informed choice. We list thousands of discounted software products with prices that are almost always the lowest available in the country. We also list a huge selection of free downloads so you can try software free before you decide to buy.
The store features the the software industry’s leading publishers, including Microsoft, Intuit, Symantec, Adobe, Nuance and hundreds of others. Our software store provides users with rich resources including thousands of user reviews, articles, and product comparison charts.

Download free softwares
Mp3 Knife
DVD Knife
Copy Cat
ShutDown After
Be Punctual

TOP 300 Freeware software!
Here you will find the best freeware software, some reviews and tech news. Home of the nLite addons and video tutorials.

Digitizing or digitization

is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, a digital image, for the object, and digital form, for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitizing means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form. For a document the term means to trace the document image or capture the “corners” where the lines end or change direction. – Wikipedia

What is Digitisation? (Analogue vs Digital)
Digitisation involves taking a snapshot of our inherently analogue world and breaking this snapshot down into tiny digital fragments, which can be stored and manipulated by computer. When digitising images, each chunk or element has a colour and brightness value corresponding to that of the original scene. With enough picture elements, we can create an acceptable facsimile of the original scene. The process is akin to creating a mosaic from individual ceramic tiles. Creating a highly realistic mosaic requires the use of many small tiles.

Basics Of Photography: The Complete Guide
- Understanding How Your Digital Camera Works
- Your Camera’s Automatic and Assisted Settings
- Your Camera’s Manual Settings
- Composition and Technique
- Editing Images in Post

A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
Since a disk drive, or indeed any computer storage, can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for different kinds of information. Within any format type, e.g., word processor documents, there will typically be several different formats. Sometimes these formats compete with each other.
File formats are divided into proprietary and open formats. – Wikipedia

File Format Identification
File Format Identification is the process of figuring out the format of a sequence of bytes. Operating systems typically do this by file extension or by embedded MIME information.

File Extension Seeker
Metasearch engine for file extensions – Find info about unknown file extensions or filetypes lightning fast!

Almost Every file format in the world!A  B  C D E  F G H I J  K L M  N  O P Q  R S T U V  W X Y  Z  No#

Table: Common Image File Formats

File Formats Glossary

“Every File Extension in the World”
This is a list of file extension names or suffixes that indicate the format or usage of a file and a brief description of that file extension. In general, if you have the program that uses that file extension, that program can be used to open or otherwise use the file.

The objectives of FTP are 1) to promote sharing of files (computer   programs and/or data), 2) to encourage indirect or implicit (via   programs) use of remote computers, 3) to shield a user from   variations in file storage systems among hosts, and 4) to transfer   data reliably and efficiently.  FTP, though usable directly by a user   at a terminal, is designed mainly for use by programs.
The attempt in this specification is to satisfy the diverse needs of   users of maxi-hosts, mini-hosts, personal workstations, and TACs,   with a simple, and easily implemented protocol design.