# Ernő Rubik

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#### Ernő Rubik was born July 13, 1944, Budapest

Inventor of Rubik’s Cube, a popular toy of the 1980s. Rubik’s Cube consists of 26 small cubes that rotate on a central axis; nine coloured cube faces, in three rows of three each, form each side of the cube. When the cube is twisted out of its original arrangement, the player must then return it to the original configuration, one among 43 quintillion possible ones …

The son of a poet mother and a glider-manufacturer father, Rubik studied sculpture at the Technical University in Budapest and architecture at the Academy of Applied Arts and Design, also in Budapest. While a professor of design at the academy, he pursued his hobby of building geometric models. One of these was a prototype of his cube, made of 27 wooden blocks; it took Rubik a month to solve the problem of the cube. It proved a useful tool for teaching algebraic group theory, and in late 1977 Konsumex, Hungary’s state trading company, began marketing it. By 1980 Rubik’s Cube was marketed throughout the world, and over 100 million authorized units, with an estimated 50 million unauthorized imitations, were sold, mostly during its subsequent three years of popularity …

Britannica Encyclopaedia: Erno Rubik

#### Rubik and the Cube – Rubik’s Cube

There is only 1 correct answer and 43 quintillion wrong ones for Rubik’s Cube. God’s algorithm is the answer that solves the puzzle in the least number of moves. One eighth of the world’s population has laid hands on ‘The Cube’, the most popular puzzle in history and the colorful brainchild of Erno Rubik.

Rubik’s initial attraction to inventing the Cube was not in producing the best selling toy puzzle in history. The structural design problem interested Rubik; he asked, “How could the blocks move independently without falling apart?” In Rubik’s Cube, twenty-six individual little cubes or cubies make up the big Cube. Each layer of nine cubies can twist and the layers can overlap. Any three squares in a row, except diagonally, can join a new layer. Rubik’s initial attempt to use elastic bands failed, his solution was to have the blocks hold themselves together by their shape. Rubik hand carved and assembled the little cubies together. He marked each side of the big Cube with adhesive paper of a different color, and started twisting …

#### RUBIK, Ernő

His most famous work is the logical game entitled Bűvös Kocka (Magical Cube), later called Rubik’s Cube (1975), the idea of which came to him during his work as a University lecturer. The idea came from imagining how one could force his imagination to picture the unseen side of a known object/form. The variations of his work are the Mini bűvös kocka (Mini Magical Cube), composed of eight units, a spatial logical game, in an octahedron form, Bűvös Domino (Magical Domino) and the Bűvös Sajt (Magical Cheese) (both in 1980). Further games developed by him are the sliding block logical game (1980), the wooden game composed of blocks (1981-1986), the Rubik’s Magic (Magical cubes, 1985), and its display-incorporated version (1986), the logical games called TRIAMID DICE, FIFTEEN PUZZLE, and TANGLE in 1989, then HAT and MAZE in 1993, and the NEW TANGLE in 1996. Rubik was a co-developer of the videogame named Android, and the building block game named LINKS in 1997 …

Artportal: architect, interior architect, designer

#### The Rubik’s Cube: A Puzzling Success

There are many reasons for the enduring popularity of the Rubik’s Cube, according to its reclusive Hungarian inventor, Erno Rubik. The iconic toy is an intellectual challenge, it’s accessible to people from all cultures, and it helps provide a sense of order and stability in an uncertain world. But the fundamental reason 350 million cubes have sold since 1980, Rubik says from his studio in Budapest, is its design: “People like its beauty, simplicity and form. It’s really not a puzzle or a toy. It’s a piece of art.”

Whatever the magic, it’s still working. As toy stores around the world feel the chill of recession, the Rubik’s Cube is in the middle of a comeback. Global sales reached 15 million last year, up 3 million over 2007, according to Seven Towns Limited, the British firm that licenses all of Rubik’s creations. When New York City toy retailer FAO Schwarz reintroduced the Cube 18 months ago it became one of the store’s Top 20 selling toys within weeks; sales have stayed steady despite the economic downturn …

TIME.com: Ernő Rubik

#### Ernő Rubik

He is best known for the invention of mechanical puzzles including Rubik’s Cube, Rubik’s Magic, Rubik’s Snake and Rubik Sphere.

Cube-like puzzles
Rubik’s Cube (standard 3×3×3 version of the cube).
Rubik’s Cylinder (3x3x3 cube with flattend corners.)
Pocket Cube or Mini-Cube (2×2×2 version of the cube).
Domino Cube (2x3x3 version of the cube, white and black, two sides are marked with dots of domino).
Rubik’s Revolution (A electronic light game where light is seen through colored plastic).
Rubik’s Revenge (4×4×4 version of the cube).
Professor’s Cube (5×5×5 version of the cube).
Rubik’s Soma Puzzle, aka Rubik’s Mini-Bricks (a variation of Piet Hein’s Soma Cube: a set of different shaped bricks that can be assembled into different shapes – aim is to construct a cube).
Rubik’s Icon (identical to a Rubik’s cube except it has black and silver stickers instead of the original ones).
Rubik’s Mirror Blocks (solution is identical to the original Rubik’s Cube but every one of its blocks a different size, so it does not remain a cube when scrambled).

Other classic puzzles
Rubik’s Magic
Rubik’s Clock
Rubik’s Snake, also known as Rubik’s Twist (composed of 24 wedges that can be arranged to form different shapes)
Rubik’s 360

The ’90s collection
(a set of four puzzles released at approximately the same time in the early 1990s)
Rubik’s Triamid
Rubik’s Tangle (a series of jigsaw-type puzzles, with square pieces; the aim is to create a tangle of ropes that join end to end)
Rubik’s Dice
Rubik’s XV
Other puzzles
Rubik’s Double Tangram
Rubik’s Maze
Rubik’s Tangram
Rubik’s Rabbits
Rubik’s Rings
Rubik’s Royal Brain Teaser
440 piece jigsaw puzzle
Rubik’s Shells
Rubik’s UFO

Zigzaw (a jigsaw puzzle)
Rubik’s World (AKA: Rubik’s Globe)
Rubik’s Games PC Video Game released in 1999 A collection of 5 mini games:
Rubik’s Classic by Erno Rubik.
Cover Up by Erno Rubik.
Play Ground by Roland Schon.
Zigthrough by Laszlo Mero and Laszlo Zsiga.
Paint War by Tom Kremer.

Multi-player games
Rubik’s Brain Game

Two-player game;
One player acts as the “Codemaster”, creating a hidden pattern; the other player has to guess this in as few turns as possible;
Similar principle to Mastermind.
Rubik’s Brain Game at BoardGameGeek
Rubik’s Challenge aka Rubik’s Game
Cube-shaped game
Two to six players
Rubik’s Game at BoardGameGeek
Rubik’s Checkers Challenge
Two-player abstract strategy board game;
Game of checkers with a twist.
Each piece begins with the full power of a King, moving diagonally forwards and backwards and jumping captures as in regular checkers.
Upon a first capture a piece is flipped over to the pawn-side with its movement then reduced to a backwards direction only. A second capture of the same piece removes it from the game.
Rubik’s Checkers Challenge at BoardGameGeek
Rubik’s Cube Card Game
Rubik’s Cube Card Game at BoardGameGeek
Rubik’s Eclipse aka Rubik’s Magic Strategy Game aka Rubik’s Tac Toe
Two-player abstract strategy board game;
Tagline – “Easy to learn, a challenge to win.”
Rubik’s Tac Toe at BoardGameGeek

Rubik’s Illusion game board
Rubik’s Illusion
Two-player abstract strategy board game;
the board is constructed as eight playing spaces wide, by four real playing spaces deep, with a mirror at the far edge of the board making the total depth of play eight spaces.
The game is played with 5 red pieces, 5 yellow pieces and 10 mixed colour pieces whose reflection appears to be the opposite colour. The goal is to make a horizontal, vertical or diagonal line of 5 pieces of the player’s colour.
Rubik’s Illusion at BoardGameGeek
Rubik’s Infinity
Two-player abstract strategy board game;
each player has marbles of a certain colour;
the aim is to make as many rows of four marbles as possible whilst preventing your opponent from doing the same;
Tagline – “Move one ball to change it all. The more you score four, the faster you win. Easy to learn, a challenge to master.”
Rubik’s Infinity at BoardGameGeek
Rubik’s Line Up
Rubik’s Race
two player game
each player has a five by five sliding puzzle
the object is to make the central three by three square into a certain pattern.
Rubik’s Race at BoardGameGeek

Wikipedia: Rubik Ernő

#### A Simple Complexity – Written by Charles Cao

It is difficult to understand the mechanics of the cube without first understanding the component parts. Rubik’s cube consists of two distinct components: the core and the outer cubes. The shape of the core can be envisioned as a central cube with six attached octagons, one on each face. Each octagon is attached to allow free rotation in either direction.
The face of each octagon is parallel to the face of the imaginary central cube. The eight sides of each octagon are perpendicular to that imaginary cube. These will be referred to as the sides of the octagon.

Attached to this core piece are the outer cubes, of which there are three types: the sides, the edges, and the corners. There are a total of six side pieces, each has only one visible face in the final construction of the cube. Each side piece attaches to one of the octagons of the core; side pieces are only pieces that never move in relation to the core …

As a Mathematics Teaching Tool

The variations of possible cube configurations have inspired mathematicians to study Rubik’s cube. However, the most common type of cube study focuses on permutations and algorithms. Permutation is the ordering of a series of elements, in this case, the ordering of the faces of the cube. An algorithm is a step-by-step guide that outlines the procedure for a task …

Telegraph: Rubik’s Mechanics

#### Rubik’s Cube finally solved after 26 years by avid fan

Delighted Graham, 45, from Portchester, Hants, has been tirelessly trying to solve the riddle of the Cube since he bought the toy in 1983.
Married dad-of-one Graham has endured endless sleepless nights and after more than 27,400 hours he finally managed to conquer his personal Everest.

Builder Graham said: “I cannot tell you what a relief it was to finally solve it. It has driven me mad over the years – it felt like it had taken over my life.
“I have missed important events to stay in and solve it and I would lay awake at night thinking about it.
“Friends have offered to solve it for me and I know that you can find solutions on the web but I just had to do it myself.
“I have had wrist and back problems from spending hours on it but it was all worth it.
“When I clicked that last bit into place and each face was a solid colour I wept.” …

#### Ernö Rubik – Rubik’s cube history – Information on the Rubik’s cube

The Rubik’s cube was invented in 1974 by the Hungarian professor of architecture Ernö Rubik. Some people may remember of it as the Magic Cube since at the beginning its inventor named it “Büvös Kocka”, the Hungarian name for Magic Cube.
The Hungarian cube was firstly a success in its native country, and then it became a real triumph in the whole world. The object had been conceived at first in order to develop the faculties of visualization of the pupils in architecture. It turned out afterward that the educational dimension of the Rubik’s Cube was much important… It is indeed a natural and material representation of some mathematical principles.

The cubist’s thumb, the disease of the cubists thumb. In fact it is a thumb tendinitis. if you are right-hander it is the left thumb which suffers, that is to say the thumb of the hand which holds the cube.
The Rubik’s wrist : this time it is the wrist which suffers…

“This object is a wonderful example of the rigorous beauty, the big wealth of the natural laws : it is a perfect example of the human mind possibilities to test their scientific rigour and to dominate them. It represents the unity of real and beautiful, which means for me the same thing.”
[Ernö Rubik]

The Cube can seem alive as it heats up in your hand. The fact that each face of the Cube is made of three layers of three blocks has an important meaning. The number three seems to have a particular significance, relevant in some strange ways to the relation between man and nature.
“mother-child-father, heaven-earth-hell, creation-preservation-destruction, birth-life-death.”
[Ernö Rubik]

The Cube is an imitation of life itself –or even an improvement on life. The problems of puzzles are very near the problems of life, our whole life is solving puzzles. If you are hungry, you have to find something to eat. But everyday problems are very mixed–they’re not clear. The Cube’s problem depends just on you. You can solve it independently. But to find happiness in life, you’re not independent. That’s the only big difference.
[Ernö Rubik]

Cubeland: Ernö Rubik

#### Hungarian Rubik’s Cube Fan Club

How to solve
Puzzles
Forum
Pictures
Videos
Competitions
Records
History

Hungarian Rubik’s Cube Fan Club

#### TouchCube: Rubik’s Cube gets digital makeover

Unveiled at the CeBIT technology fair in Hanover Germany, the TouchCube is made up of six multicoloured screens, lit from inside.
Like the classic game invented by Professor Erno Rubik, the aim of the game is to arrange each side of the cube into squares of a single colour.

Instead of twisting, players manipulate the toy by sliding their fingers along the rows of squares, with the intended movement detected by the sensitive screens.
The new cube also remembers all past moves so players can go back as many steps as they like if they fear they have gone awry. The intelligent device also has a button that baffled users can press for tips on what to do next …

#### Creator of the Cube: Erno Rubik

In this exclusive interview, creator Erno Rubik talks about how he designed the Cube and shows off his new toy, the Rubik’s 360

TIME Video: Rubik’s 360

#### Michael Reid’s Rubik’s cube page

Cube-lovers mailing list
Nederlandse Kubus Club
Rubik’s cube pages on the web
Cube books
Sources of cube-like puzzles
My own notes
Cube solutions on the web
Other cube pages
Interactive cubes on the web
Cube software and algorithms

UCF Math: Michael Reid’s Rubik’s cube page

#### Rubik’s 360: the first review

It certainly feels like they have come with something that could be a major success.
It has got a lot of similarities to the Cube and the same sort of appeal – the colours and the simplicity of it …

The Rubik’s Revolution, which is an electronic game that looked like the Cube, wasn’t particularly well-received. But then you’re talking about an elite community of purists whereas the big sales of the 360 will come from the wider public and I’m sure they will like it.

#### Rubik’s Cube inventor is back with Rubik’s 360

The Rubik’s 360 is set to repeat the success of the maddening Cube, which became an overnight sensation almost three decades ago and remains the world’s fastest-selling toy.
Now the reclusive Hungarian inventor hopes to recreate the buzz of Rubik’s Cube with his new game, featuring six balls trapped within three transparent plastic spheres.

The puzzle, shown to the Sunday Telegraph ahead of its unveiling at a toy industry fair in Germany on February 5, confronts users with the same frustrating challenge – a task that is simple to understand, with only one possible solution, yet extremely difficult to execute.
Players must get the coloured balls from an inner sphere into matching slots on the outer sphere by shaking them through a middle sphere that has only two holes …

#### Erno Rubik

Who is Erno Rubik? Erno Rubik was the inventor of the world famous Rubik’s cube, also spelled rubix cube. Due to Sam Loyd’s invention of the Puzzle of 15, Erno Rubik was able to conceptualize the idea behind a three dimensional variation of the sliding tile game using colored squares. Erno Rubik was born in Budapest, Hungary during World War II to a poet mother and aircraft engineer father. Rubik started his career by studying sculpture and architecture. After graduating he taught interior design at the Academy of Applied Arts and Design. It was here where he got an urge to design a cube with independently moving parts.

How to solve Rubik’s puzzle
Rubik’s Cube hits the Market
Rubik’s Cube Explosion
Erno Rubik Today
Influences of Sam Loyd …

#### The simple way to learn how to quickly solve the Rubik’s cube

“Thank you for the video, I am trying to solve the cube for a while now.. and may I say you have the most handsome hands ever. Thx again.”

DailyMotion Video: Rubik’s Cube

#### SolidWorks Rubik’s Cube

It is a Hands on.. Exercise rich approach to learning SolidWorks®. Have you ever wondered how a Rubik’s cube works? In this video I will used SolidWorks, the industry standard 3D CAD software, to show how a Rubik’s cube works. In later videos I will explain how to solve the Rubik’s Cube.

Vimeo: jayaoyama

#### Erno Rubik on The Big Breakfast, 1999

Not too many people were speed-solving the cube in 1999. Somehow a producer from this show found my email address, and asked me on a Thursday if I was in London, and if I could be on the show with …

You Tube Video: Erno Rubik

#### How to solve the Rubik’s Cube with algorithms

The Rubik’s Cube, originally called the “Magic Cube,” is a mechanical puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture, Erno Rubik.

If you want to learn how to solve the Rubik’s Cube, then just check out this two-part video tutorial, which will have you solving it in no time.

In order to solve the Rubiks Cube, you will need to know the basics of the Cube, like how to determine what are the center, edge, and corner pieces. You will also learn a little Rubik’s Cube notation, for the algorithms you will perform, listed below.

Step 1: Ui Ri U Fi
Step 2: Ri Di R D
Step 3: U R Ui Ri Ui Fi U F
Step 3: Ui Fi U F U R Ui Ri
Step 4: F R U Ri Ui Fi
Step 5: F U Fi U F 2U Fi U
Step 6: U R Ui Li U Ri Ui L
Step 7: Ri Di R D

WonderHowTo: Rubik’s Cube

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